Description I have a fin h.w first you should look for an income statement & balance sheet for 2 years ( 2021 n 2022 Or 2022 n 2023 ONLY) so only 2 years from the last 3 years second .. the company must be like Apple , Samsung , b.m.w (big and famous company) I need an intro (only 3 lines) so short intro about the company and the conclusion just write if u recommend to buy shares from this company or no (so very short conclusion as well) DSO and debit ratio are (the lower the better) all other formulas are ( the higher the better) and for P\E may u should search about earning per share and price per share in the internet here is a comparing for two companies”example” ( but our h.w is comparing for 2 years for the same company ) I need a pdf and an excel files  3-1 ABC XYZ CA 60 110 CL 20 90 60/20= 3 110/90=1.2 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-2 a/wps/wcm/connect/e nglish/investor/resour ces/5/4/541cea343c1e-4e81-a52c7e9f4db95f51/STC_An uual_Report_2019en.pdf Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-3 file:///C:/Users/AU030/Downloads/CG_B oDReportEN_2020041 3_Final.pdf Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-4 CHAPTER 3 Analysis of Financial Statements Ratio analysis Du Pont system Effects of improving ratios Limitations of ratio analysis Qualitative factors Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-5 Balance Sheet: Assets Cash AR Inventories Total CA Gross FA Less: Deprec. Net FA Total assets Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. 2002E 85,632 878,000 1,716,480 2,680,112 1,197,160 380,120 817,040 3,497,152 2001 7,282 632,160 1,287,360 1,926,802 1,202,950 263,160 939,790 2,866,592 All rights reserved. 3-6 Liabilities and Equity 2002E Accounts payable 436,800 Notes payable 300,000 Accruals 408,000 Total CL 1,144,800 Long-term debt 400,000 Common stock 1,721,176 Retained earnings 231,176 Total equity 1,952,352 Total L & E 3,497,152 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. 2001 524,160 636,808 489,600 1,650,568 723,432 460,000 32,592 492,592 2,866,592 All rights reserved. 3-7 Income Statement Sales COGS Other expenses EBITDA Depreciation EBIT Interest exp. EBT Taxes (40%) Net income Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. 2002E 2001 7,035,600 6,034,000 5,875,992 5,528,000 550,000 519,988 609,608 (13,988) 116,960 116,960 492,648 (130,948) 70,008 136,012 422,640 (266,960) 169,056 (106,784) 253,584 (160,176) All rights reserved. 3-8 Other Data 2002E 2001 Shares out. 250,000 100,000 EPS $1.014 ($1.602) DPS $0.220 $0.110 Stock price $12.17 $2.25 Lease pmts $40,000 $40,000 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3-9 Why are ratios useful? Standardize numbers; facilitate comparisons Used to highlight weaknesses and strengths Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 10 What are the five major categories of ratios, and what questions do they answer? Liquidity: Can we make required payments? Asset management: Right amount of assets vs. sales? Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 11 Debt management: Right mix of debt and equity? Profitability: Do sales prices exceed unit costs, and are sales high enough as reflected in PM, ROE, and ROA? Market value: Do investors like what they see as reflected in P/E and M/B ratios? Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 12 STC Mobaily Which is better CR 1.394 0.589 STC QR 1.36 0.583 STC INT TO 58.4 191.53 Mobaily DSO 99.5 101.22 STC FA TO 1.23 0.65 STC TA TO 0.48 0.36 STC D/TA 0.46 0.62 STC TIE 20.4 2.4 STC PM 18.97% 5.57% STC BEP 0.1043 0.0355 STC ROA 0.091 0.0203 STC ROE 0.171 0.054 STC P/E 5.69 26.89 MOBILY Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 13 STC Mobaily Which is better CR 1.394 0.589 STC QR 1.36 0.583 STC INT TO 58.44 191.5 Mobily DSO 99.58 101.22 stc FA TO 1.23 0.658 stc TA TO 1.2855 0.365 stc D/A 0.46 0.623 STC TIE 20.4 2.435 STC PM 0.189 0.055 STC BEP 0.1043 0.0355 STC ROA 0.091 0.0203 STC ROE 0.171 0.054 STC P/E 5.69 26.77 MOBILY Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 14 Calculate D’Leon’s forecasted current and quick ratios for 2002. $2,680 CA CR02 = CL = $1,145 = 2.34x. CA – Inv. QR02 = CL $2,680 – $1,716 = = 0.84x. $1,145 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 15 Comments on CR and QR 2002 2001 2000 Ind. CR 2.34x 1.2x 2.3x 2.7x QR 0.84x 0.4x 0.8x 1.0x  Expected to improve but still below the industry average.  Liquidity position is weak. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 16 A company has current liabilities of $800 million, and its current ratio is 2.5. What is its level of current assets? If this firm’s quick ratio is 2, how much inventory does it have? 1. ($2,000 million) 2. ($400 million) Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 17 What is the inventory turnover ratio vs. the industry average? Sales Inv. turnover = Inventories $7,036 = = 4.10x. $1,716 2002 2001 2000 Ind. Inv. T. 4.1x 4.7x 4.8x 6.1x Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 18 Comments on Inventory Turnover Inventory turnover is below industry average. D’Leon might have old inventory, or its control might be poor. No improvement is currently forecasted. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 19 Days sales outstanding (DSO),DSO is the average number of days after making a sale before receiving cash. Receivables DSO = Average sales per day Receivables $878 = Sales/365 = $7,036/365 = 45.5 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 20 Appraisal of DSO DSO 2002 45.6 2001 38.2 2000 37.4 Ind. 32.0  D’Leon collects too slowly, and is getting worse.  D’Leon has a poor credit policy. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 21 A firm has annual sales of $200 million, $40 million of inventory, and $60 million of accounts receivable. What is its inventory turnover ratio? What is its DSO based on a 365-day year? Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 22 A firm has annual sales of $200 million, $40 million of inventory, and $60 million of accounts receivable. What is its inventory turnover ratio? What is its DSO based on a 365-day year? (5) (109.5 days) Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 23 a/wps/wcm/connect/e nglish/investor/resour ces/e/e/eef87150-3a3a4080-9fa2ca97bcf2fd9e/Tadawal _English.pdf Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 24 m.sa/wps/wcm/connec t/d6d930dd-e772-4d69932cbc4d2580e58b/Mobily +FY2020+English+final+si gned.pdf?MOD=AJPE RES&CONVERT_TO=u rl&CACHEID=ROOTW ORKSPACEd6d930dd-e772-4d69932c-bc4d2580e58bCopyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. nvjs9EA 3 – 25 F.A. and T.A. Turnover versus Industry Average Fixed assets Sales = turnover Net fixed assets $7,036 = = 8.61x. $817 Total assets = turnover Sales Total assets $7,036 = = 2.01x. $3,497 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 26 2002 FA TO 8.6x TA TO 2.0x 2001 6.4x 2.1x 2000 10.0x 2.3x Ind. 7.0x 2.6x FA turnover projected to exceed industry average. Good. TA turnover not up to industry average. Caused by excessive current assets (A/R and Inv.) Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 27 Calculate the debt ratio, Time-interestearned (TIE) ratio, and EBITDA coverage ratios. Total debt Debt ratio = Total assets = $1,145 + $400 = 44.2%. $3,497 EBIT TIE = Int. expense = $492.6 = 7.0x. $70 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 28 EBITDA coverage = EBITDA + Lease payments (in cash) Interest Lease Principal expense + pmt. + repayments $609.6 + $40 = = 5.9x. $70 + $40 + $0 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 29 How do the debt management ratios compare with industry averages? D/A TIE EBITDA coverage 2002 2001 2000 Ind. 44.2% 82.8% 54.8% 50.0% 7.0x -1.0x 4.3x 6.2x 5.9x 0.1x 3.0x 8.0x D/A and TIE are better than industry average but EBITDA still below industry average. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 30 Profit margin vs. industry average? NI $253.6 P.M. = Sales = $7,036 = 3.6%. P.M. 2002 3.6% 2001 -2.7% 2000 Ind. 2.6% 3.5% Very bad in 2001, but projected to exceed industry average in 2002. Looking good. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 31 Basic Earning Power (BEP) vs. industry average? EBIT BEP = Total assets $492.6 = $3,497 = 14.1%. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 32 BEP 2002 14.1% 2001 -4.6% 2000 13.0% Ind. 19.1% BEP removes effect of taxes and financial leverage. Useful for comparison. Projected to be below average. Room for improvement. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 33 Return on Assets Net income ROA = Total assets $253.6 = $3,497 = 7.3%. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 34 Net income ROE = Common equity = $253.6 = 13.0%. $1,952 ROA ROE 2002 7.3% 13.0% 2001 2000 Ind. -5.6% 6.0% 9.1% -32.5% 13.3% 18.2% Both below average but improving. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 35 Effects of Debt on ROA and ROE ROA is lowered by debt–interest lowers NI, which also lowers ROA = NI/Assets. But use of debt lowers equity, hence could raise ROE = NI/Equity. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 36 Typical Industry Average P/E Ratios Industry P/E ratio Banking 16.58 Computer Software Services 84.28 Drug 43.89 Electric Utilities (Eastern U.S.) 25.28 Internet Services* 326.53 Semiconductors 85.44 Steel 12.38 Tobacco 11.07 Water Utilities 22.30 * Because many internet companies have negative earnings and no P/E, there was only a small sample of internet companies. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 37 Price per share P/E = Earning per share $12.17 = $1.48 = 8.21x. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 38 Com. equity BVPS = Shares out. $1,952 = = $7.81. 250 Mkt. price per share M/B = Book value per share $12.17 = $7.81 = 1.56x. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 39 P/E 2002 12.0x 2001 -1.4x 2000 9.7x Ind. 14.2x M/B 1.56x 0.5x 1.3x 2.4x  P/E: How much investors will pay for $1 of earnings. High is good.  M/B: How much paid for $1 of BV. Higher is better.  P/E and M/B are high if ROE is high, risk is low. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 40 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 41 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 42 The Du Pont system focuses on: Expense control (P.M.) Asset utilization (TATO) Debt utilization (Eq. Mult.) It shows how these factors combine to determine the ROE. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 43 ROE= NI/E ROA*E multiplier NI/T.A*T.A/E Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 44 Profit margin TA turnover NI Sales Sales TA 2000 2.6% x 2.3 2001 -2.7% x 2.1 2002 3.6% x 2.0 Ind. 3.5% x 2.6 Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. Equity multiplier TA CE x x x x 2.2 = 13.3% 5.8 = -32.5% 1.8 = 13.0% 2.0 = 18.2% All rights reserved. 3 – 45 1. Explain how the extended, or modified, Du Pont equation can be used to reveal the basic determinants of ROE. What is the equity multiplier? 2. A company has a profit margin of 6%, a total asset turnover ratio of 2, and an equity multiplier of 1.5. What is its ROE? 18% Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 46 Simplified D’Leon Data A/R 878 Debt Other CA 1,802 Equity Net FA 817 Total assets $3,497 L&E Sales day 1,545 1,952 $3,497 $7,035,600 = = $19,275.62. 365 Q. How would reducing DSO to 32 days affect the company? Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 47 Effect of reducing DSO from 45.6 days to 32 days: Old A/R = 19,275.62 x 45.6 = 878,000 New A/R = 19,275.62 x 32.0 = 616,820 Cash freed up: 261,180 Initially shows up as additional cash. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 48 New Balance Sheet Added cash A/R Other CA Net FA Total assets $ 261 Debt $1,545 617 Equity 1,952 1,802 817 $3,497 Total L&E $3,497 What could be done with the new cash? Effect on stock price and risk? Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 49 Potential use of freed up cash Repurchase stock Expand business Reduce debt All these actions would improve stock price. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 50 What are some potential problems and limitations of financial ratio analysis? Comparison with industry averages is difficult if the firm operates many different divisions. “Average” performance not necessarily good. Seasonal factors can distort ratios. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 51 “Window dressing” techniques can make statements and ratios look better. Different operating and accounting practices distort comparisons. Sometimes hard to tell if a ratio is “good” or “bad.” Difficult to tell whether company is, on balance, in strong or weak position. Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 – 52 What are some qualitative factors analysts should consider when evaluating a company’s likely future financial performance? Are the company’s revenues tied to 1 key customer, product, or supplier? What percentage of the company’s business is generated overseas? Competition Future prospects Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved. Legal and regulatory environment Purchase answer to see full attachment

Description

I have a fin h.w

first you should look for an income statement & balance sheet for 2 years ( 2021 n 2022 Or 2022 n 2023 ONLY)

so only 2 years from the last 3 years

second .. the company must be like Apple , Samsung , b.m.w (big and famous company)

I need an intro (only 3 lines) so short intro about the company

and the conclusion just write if u recommend to buy shares from this company or no (so very short conclusion as well)

DSO and debit ratio are (the lower the better)

all other formulas are ( the higher the better)

and for P\E may u should search about earning per share and price per share in the internet

here is a comparing for two companies”example” ( but our h.w is comparing for 2 years for the same company )

I need a pdf and an excel files 

3-1
ABC
XYZ
CA
60
110
CL
20
90
60/20= 3
110/90=1.2
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3-2

a/wps/wcm/connect/e
nglish/investor/resour
ces/5/4/541cea343c1e-4e81-a52c7e9f4db95f51/STC_An
uual_Report_2019en.pdf
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3-3
file:///C:/Users/AU030/Downloads/CG_B
oDReportEN_2020041
3_Final.pdf
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3-4
CHAPTER 3
Analysis of Financial Statements
Ratio analysis
Du Pont system
Effects of improving ratios
Limitations of ratio analysis
Qualitative factors
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3-5
Balance Sheet: Assets
Cash
AR
Inventories
Total CA
Gross FA
Less: Deprec.
Net FA
Total assets
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
2002E
85,632
878,000
1,716,480
2,680,112
1,197,160
380,120
817,040
3,497,152
2001
7,282
632,160
1,287,360
1,926,802
1,202,950
263,160
939,790
2,866,592
All rights reserved.
3-6
Liabilities and Equity
2002E
Accounts payable
436,800
Notes payable
300,000
Accruals
408,000
Total CL
1,144,800
Long-term debt
400,000
Common stock
1,721,176
Retained earnings
231,176
Total equity
1,952,352
Total L & E
3,497,152
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
2001
524,160
636,808
489,600
1,650,568
723,432
460,000
32,592
492,592
2,866,592
All rights reserved.
3-7
Income Statement
Sales
COGS
Other expenses
EBITDA
Depreciation
EBIT
Interest exp.
EBT
Taxes (40%)
Net income
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
2002E
2001
7,035,600 6,034,000
5,875,992 5,528,000
550,000
519,988
609,608
(13,988)
116,960
116,960
492,648 (130,948)
70,008
136,012
422,640 (266,960)
169,056 (106,784)
253,584 (160,176)
All rights reserved.
3-8
Other Data
2002E
2001
Shares out.
250,000
100,000
EPS
$1.014
($1.602)
DPS
$0.220
$0.110
Stock price
$12.17
$2.25
Lease pmts
$40,000
$40,000
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3-9
Why are ratios useful?
Standardize numbers; facilitate
comparisons
Used to highlight weaknesses and
strengths
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 10
What are the five major categories of
ratios, and what questions do they
answer?
Liquidity: Can we make required
payments?
Asset management: Right amount
of assets vs. sales?
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 11
Debt management: Right mix of
debt and equity?
Profitability: Do sales prices exceed
unit costs, and are sales high
enough as reflected in PM, ROE, and
ROA?
Market value: Do investors like what
they see as reflected in P/E and M/B
ratios?
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 12
STC
Mobaily
Which is better
CR
1.394
0.589
STC
QR
1.36
0.583
STC
INT TO
58.4
191.53
Mobaily
DSO
99.5
101.22
STC
FA TO
1.23
0.65
STC
TA TO
0.48
0.36
STC
D/TA
0.46
0.62
STC
TIE
20.4
2.4
STC
PM
18.97%
5.57%
STC
BEP
0.1043
0.0355
STC
ROA
0.091
0.0203
STC
ROE
0.171
0.054
STC
P/E
5.69
26.89
MOBILY
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 13
STC
Mobaily
Which is better
CR
1.394
0.589
STC
QR
1.36
0.583
STC
INT TO
58.44
191.5
Mobily
DSO
99.58
101.22
stc
FA TO
1.23
0.658
stc
TA TO
1.2855
0.365
stc
D/A
0.46
0.623
STC
TIE
20.4
2.435
STC
PM
0.189
0.055
STC
BEP
0.1043
0.0355
STC
ROA
0.091
0.0203
STC
ROE
0.171
0.054
STC
P/E
5.69
26.77
MOBILY
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 14
Calculate D’Leon’s forecasted
current and quick ratios for 2002.
$2,680
CA
CR02 = CL = $1,145 = 2.34x.
CA – Inv.
QR02 =
CL
$2,680 – $1,716
=
=
0.84x.
$1,145
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 15
Comments on CR and QR
2002
2001
2000
Ind.
CR
2.34x
1.2x
2.3x
2.7x
QR
0.84x
0.4x
0.8x
1.0x
 Expected to improve but still below
the industry average.
 Liquidity position is weak.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 16
A company has current liabilities of $800
million, and its current ratio is 2.5. What is
its level of current assets? If this firm’s quick
ratio is 2, how much
inventory does it have?
1. ($2,000 million)
2. ($400 million)
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 17
What is the inventory turnover ratio vs.
the industry average?
Sales
Inv. turnover = Inventories
$7,036
=
= 4.10x.
$1,716
2002
2001
2000
Ind.
Inv. T. 4.1x
4.7x
4.8x
6.1x
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 18
Comments on Inventory Turnover
Inventory turnover is below
industry average.
D’Leon might have old inventory,
or its control might be poor.
No improvement is currently
forecasted.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 19
Days sales outstanding (DSO),DSO is
the average number of days after
making a sale before receiving cash.
Receivables
DSO = Average sales per day
Receivables
$878
= Sales/365 = $7,036/365 = 45.5
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 20
Appraisal of DSO
DSO
2002
45.6
2001
38.2
2000
37.4
Ind.
32.0
 D’Leon collects too slowly, and is getting
worse.
 D’Leon has a poor credit policy.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 21
A firm has annual sales of $200 million, $40
million of inventory, and $60 million of
accounts receivable. What is its inventory
turnover ratio? What is its DSO based
on a 365-day year?
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 22
A firm has annual sales of $200 million, $40
million of inventory, and $60 million of
accounts receivable. What is its inventory
turnover ratio? What is its DSO based
on a 365-day year?
(5)
(109.5 days)
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 23

a/wps/wcm/connect/e
nglish/investor/resour
ces/e/e/eef87150-3a3a4080-9fa2ca97bcf2fd9e/Tadawal
_English.pdf
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 24
m.sa/wps/wcm/connec
t/d6d930dd-e772-4d69932cbc4d2580e58b/Mobily
+FY2020+English+final+si
gned.pdf?MOD=AJPE
RES&CONVERT_TO=u
rl&CACHEID=ROOTW
ORKSPACEd6d930dd-e772-4d69932c-bc4d2580e58bCopyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
nvjs9EA
3 – 25
F.A. and T.A. Turnover versus
Industry Average
Fixed assets
Sales
=
turnover
Net fixed assets
$7,036
=
= 8.61x.
$817
Total assets
=
turnover
Sales
Total assets
$7,036
=
= 2.01x.
$3,497
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 26
2002
FA TO 8.6x
TA TO 2.0x
2001
6.4x
2.1x
2000
10.0x
2.3x
Ind.
7.0x
2.6x
FA turnover projected to exceed
industry average. Good.
TA turnover not up to industry
average. Caused by excessive
current assets (A/R and Inv.)
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 27
Calculate the debt ratio, Time-interestearned (TIE) ratio, and EBITDA
coverage ratios.
Total debt
Debt ratio = Total assets
= $1,145 + $400 = 44.2%.
$3,497
EBIT
TIE =
Int. expense
= $492.6 = 7.0x.
$70
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 28
EBITDA coverage =
EBITDA + Lease payments (in cash)
Interest Lease
Principal
expense + pmt. + repayments
$609.6
+
$40
=
= 5.9x.
$70 + $40 + $0
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 29
How do the debt management ratios
compare with industry averages?
D/A
TIE
EBITDA
coverage
2002 2001 2000
Ind.
44.2% 82.8% 54.8% 50.0%
7.0x -1.0x 4.3x 6.2x
5.9x
0.1x
3.0x
8.0x
D/A and TIE are better than industry
average but EBITDA still below industry
average.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 30
Profit margin vs. industry average?
NI
$253.6
P.M. = Sales = $7,036 = 3.6%.
P.M.
2002
3.6%
2001
-2.7%
2000 Ind.
2.6% 3.5%
Very bad in 2001, but projected to
exceed industry average in 2002.
Looking good.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 31
Basic Earning Power (BEP) vs.
industry average?
EBIT
BEP =
Total assets
$492.6
= $3,497 = 14.1%.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 32
BEP
2002
14.1%
2001
-4.6%
2000
13.0%
Ind.
19.1%
BEP removes effect of taxes and
financial leverage. Useful for
comparison.
Projected to be below average.
Room for improvement.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 33
Return on Assets
Net
income
ROA =
Total assets
$253.6
= $3,497 = 7.3%.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 34
Net income
ROE = Common equity
= $253.6 = 13.0%.
$1,952
ROA
ROE
2002
7.3%
13.0%
2001 2000
Ind.
-5.6% 6.0% 9.1%
-32.5% 13.3% 18.2%
Both below average but improving.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 35
Effects of Debt on ROA and ROE
ROA is lowered by debt–interest
lowers NI, which also lowers ROA =
NI/Assets.
But use of debt lowers equity,
hence could raise ROE = NI/Equity.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 36
Typical Industry Average P/E Ratios
Industry
P/E ratio
Banking
16.58
Computer Software Services
84.28
Drug
43.89
Electric Utilities (Eastern U.S.) 25.28
Internet Services*
326.53
Semiconductors
85.44
Steel
12.38
Tobacco
11.07
Water Utilities
22.30
* Because many internet companies have negative earnings and no
P/E, there was only a small sample of internet companies.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 37
Price per share
P/E =
Earning per share
$12.17
= $1.48 = 8.21x.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 38
Com. equity
BVPS =
Shares out.
$1,952
=
= $7.81.
250
Mkt. price per share
M/B =
Book value per share
$12.17
= $7.81 = 1.56x.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 39
P/E
2002
12.0x
2001
-1.4x
2000
9.7x
Ind.
14.2x
M/B
1.56x
0.5x
1.3x
2.4x
 P/E: How much investors will pay for
$1 of earnings. High is good.
 M/B: How much paid for $1 of BV.
Higher is better.
 P/E and M/B are high if ROE is high,
risk is low.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 40
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 41
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 42
The Du Pont system focuses on:
Expense control (P.M.)
Asset utilization (TATO)
Debt utilization (Eq. Mult.)
It shows how these factors combine
to determine the ROE.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
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3 – 43
ROE= NI/E
ROA*E multiplier
NI/T.A*T.A/E
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
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3 – 44
Profit
margin
TA
turnover
NI
Sales
Sales
TA
2000 2.6% x 2.3
2001 -2.7% x 2.1
2002 3.6% x 2.0
Ind.
3.5% x 2.6
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
Equity
multiplier
TA
CE
x
x
x
x
2.2 = 13.3%
5.8 = -32.5%
1.8 = 13.0%
2.0 = 18.2%
All rights reserved.
3 – 45
1. Explain how the extended, or modified,
Du Pont equation can be used to reveal
the basic determinants of ROE.
What is the equity multiplier?
2. A company has a profit margin of 6%, a
total asset turnover ratio of 2, and an
equity multiplier of 1.5. What is its ROE?
18%
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 46
Simplified D’Leon Data
A/R
878 Debt
Other CA
1,802 Equity
Net FA
817
Total assets $3,497 L&E
Sales
day
1,545
1,952
$3,497
$7,035,600
=
= $19,275.62.
365
Q. How would reducing DSO to 32
days affect the company?
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
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3 – 47
Effect of reducing DSO from
45.6 days to 32 days:
Old A/R = 19,275.62 x 45.6 = 878,000
New A/R = 19,275.62 x 32.0 = 616,820
Cash freed up:
261,180
Initially shows up as additional cash.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 48
New Balance Sheet
Added cash
A/R
Other CA
Net FA
Total assets
$
261 Debt
$1,545
617 Equity
1,952
1,802
817
$3,497 Total L&E $3,497
What could be done with the new
cash? Effect on stock price and risk?
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 49
Potential use of freed up cash
Repurchase stock
Expand business
Reduce debt
All these actions would improve
stock price.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 50
What are some potential problems and
limitations of financial ratio analysis?
Comparison with industry averages
is difficult if the firm operates many
different divisions.
“Average” performance not
necessarily good.
Seasonal factors can distort ratios.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
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3 – 51
“Window dressing” techniques can
make statements and ratios look
better.
Different operating and accounting
practices distort comparisons.
Sometimes hard to tell if a ratio is
“good” or “bad.”
Difficult to tell whether company is,
on balance, in strong or weak
position.
Copyright © 2002 by Harcourt, Inc.
All rights reserved.
3 – 52
What are some qualitative factors
analysts should consider when
evaluating a company’s likely future
financial performance?
Are the company’s revenues tied to
1 key customer, product, or
supplier?
What percentage of the company’s
business is generated overseas?
Competition
Future prospects
Copyright
© 2002 by
Harcourt,
Inc.
All rights reserved.
Legal
and
regulatory
environment

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Week 6 Case Study Template Read the case study listed below. You must use at least one scholarly reference to provide pathophysiology statements. For this class, use of the textbook for pathophysiology statements is acceptable. You may also use an appropriate evidence-based journal. You must use the current Clinical Practice

This milestone is all about drafting a much as you can of your Chapter 2: Literature Review. Remember, as discussed in class, you should begin by drafting the body sections of your literature review. Every body section will have its own Level 2 heading. It is up to you if you want to break that section into smaller pieces with Level 3 headings. Then, as you write each of the body sections, each section should have its own mini introduction, supporting details from your sources (paraphrase, cite, state the so-what), and then a mini conclusion. After you finish your body sections, you may then draft the one paragraph “Introduction and Purpose” section to the chapter. Finally, you can then draft your “Conclusion” section, where you tie all of the information together, recap major points, and indicate where more research should be conducted.

This milestone is all about drafting a much as you can of your Chapter 2: Literature Review. Remember, as discussed in class, you should begin by drafting the body sections of your literature review. Every body section will have its own Level 2 heading. It is up to you if

See attachment  1. What was the Roosevelt Corollary, & how did it affect U.S. relations with Latin American nations? To what extent did the Roosevelt Corollary contribute to the perception of the U.S. as an imperialistic/aggressive nation? (from Chapter 19)   2. What were the results of the Paris Peace Conference & the Treaty of Versailles? Did the Treaty of Versailles lead to a lasting peace in Europe? Why or why not? (from Chapter 19)       3. What groups rose in opposition to the cultural changes of the 1920s, & how did they go about opposing those changes? What were the major flash points between fundamentalism & pluralism in the 1920s? (from Chapter 20)   4. What means or policies did the 1st New Deal undertake to provide relief to the American people & to promote economic recovery? (from Chapter 21)   5. What were the accomplishments & failures of the New Deal? Did the New Deal end the Great Depression in the U.S.? How did the New Deal recast the meaning of American freedom? (from Chapter 21)

See attachment  1. What was the Roosevelt Corollary, & how did it affect U.S. relations with Latin American nations? To what extent did the Roosevelt Corollary contribute to the perception of the U.S. as an imperialistic/aggressive nation? (from Chapter 19)   2. What were the results of the Paris Peace

Read all attachments…Instructions are attached Discussion Instructions Follow the instructions for the weekly paper assignment: · 12- point font, double spaced, one inch margins · 350-500 words · MUST be in APA format · Must use 3 references provided and one outside source Paper must address the following: a. Detail how the public’s opinion (1) and responses (2)  mental illness have changed throughout history. b. What were the public perceptions of crime and criminal behavior regarding these individuals?  c. Detail the benefits of the (1) asylum system and (2) the issues created by deinstitutionalization, generally speaking, and regarding the criminal justice system. d. Do you believe deinstitutionalization was appropriate, especially as it relates to “criminal populations”?  Why or why not? NO PLAGIARISM!!!!

Read all attachments…Instructions are attached Discussion Instructions Follow the instructions for the weekly paper assignment: · 12- point font, double spaced, one inch margins · 350-500 words · MUST be in APA format · Must use 3 references provided and one outside source Paper must address the following: a. Detail

The Death of Mila the Camel Driver Introduction: Before we explore the conditions surrounding Mila’s death, let’s review some basic facts. We define diffusion as movement of materials from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. This movement is due to kinetic energy of particles. An example of this can be observed by opening a bottle of perfume. Soon you will smell the perfume in distant parts of the room. It diffuses from the high concentration of molecules in the bottle to a lower concentration of molecules in the air. Osmosis is a type of diffusion . It involves movement of water through a differentially permeable membrane from a region of high concentration (of water molecules) to a region of lower concentration (of water molecules). We define 3 types of solutions based upon osmotic activity. In an isotonic solution, the solute concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane so there is no net movement of water. (See Figure 1) ( C ell placed in isotonic solution stays the same “Normal Cell” No change ) ( Figure 1 : Effects of an Isotonic S olution ) In a hypotonic solution, solute concentration is higher inside the cell than outside. So water moves from a high concentration outside the cell to a lower concentration inside the cell. The cell swells and may burst from the excess water. This is what occurs when we soak salad ingredients in ice water to make them crisp! (See Figure 2) ( Cell placed in hypotonic solution swells and perhaps bursts ! ) ( “Normal Cell” ) ( Cell S wells ) Figure 2: Effects of a Hypotonic Solution. In a hypertonic solution, the solute concentration is higher outside than inside the cell so water moves outward from the high concentration (of water) inside the cell to the lower concentration (of water) outside the cell. Thus the cell shrinks! (See Figure 3) ( “Normal Cell” C ell placed in hypertonic solution shrinks Cell S hrinks ) Figure 3. Effects of A Hypertonic Solution. Case Study: Mila the camel driver lost her way in the desert. After several days of wandering with her trusty camel Richard, she found himself on a beach. She carefully searched the area for a spring but found no fresh water. Finally, Mila became so thirsty that she decided to drink seawater. A few days later, a ship spotted Mila’s signal fire and landed on the beach. The ship’s captain found a delirious Mila who died the next day. Let’s investigate the cause of Mila’s death. We know that all living things are composed of cells. Since our camel driver is living, we can use stalks of celery, also composed of cells, to represent his body. We will use water and salt to investigate the effects of various concentrations of salt water on the cells. This should give us some clues to the cause of Mila’s demise. Movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high concentration of water to an area of lower (water) concentration is termed osmosis. We will investigate the effects of three concentrations of salt solution on the celery stalks (Mila). One solution is hypertonic, that is, it contains more solutes and less water than the cytoplasm of the cells. One solution will be hypotonic. This solution will contain fewer solutes than the cell cytoplasm. The third solution will be isotonic and will contain a solute concentration identical to the cell cytoplasm. By observing the effects of these solutions on the celery stalks, we should be able to determine what happened to Mila’s cells when she drank seawater. Materials: 1 celery stalk and table salt A knife Measuring spoons and measuring cup Water (tap water will work unless your water has a high concentration of dissolved solutes) Distilled water works best. 3 containers for holding the solutions and celery stalks Some type of covering to close the containers Procedure: 1. Cut 4 two inch long slices of celery (try to keep them the same length and thickness.) 2. Make 4 vertical cuts 2/3 of the length of each piece. Try to space them evenly. ( Figure 4: Make 4 vertical cuts in each piece of celery. ) ( Celery ) 3. Label 3 containers A, B and C 4. Add 1 cup of water to each container 5. Add the following amounts of salt to each container: a. A – no salt b. B – ½ teaspoon salt c. C – 2 teaspoons salt 6. Stir to dissolve the salt. 7. Immerse one celery stalk in each container and reserve one celery stalk as a control. 8. Cover the containers and wrap the “control stalk” in plastic wrap or place in an air tight container. 9. Leave the celery stalks in the container 6 hours or overnight. 10. Remove the stalks from the containers and bend each stalk 11. Record your description of each stalk in the table in the Observation section. Observations: Solution Flexibility As Compared To the Control Stalk Did the Water Move Into the cells or out of the cells? A B C Conclusions: 1. Based upon your observations of the flexibility of each stalk, which solution would you describe as isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic? Solution Tonicity A B C 2. Which solution was the closest approximation of seawater? 3. What happened to Mila’s cells as a result of drinking seawater? 4. What symptoms do you think that Mila presented before her death? 5. How would you treat someone in the condition in which the captain found Mila? 6. Give three possible sources of error in your experiment. 6

The Death of Mila the Camel Driver Introduction: Before we explore the conditions surrounding Mila’s death, let’s review some basic facts. We define diffusion as movement of materials from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. This movement is due to kinetic energy of particles. An

Topic subject matter: The Impact of the Fall of Afghanistan on veteransTHE THREE RESOURCESGannon, B. A., & Oldham, J. L. (2024). A VETERANS ORAL HISTORY PROJECT. The Routledge Companion to Public Humanities Scholarship.Walldorf Jr, C. W. (2022). Narratives and War: Explaining the Length and End of US Military Operations in Afghanistan. International Security, 47(1), 93-138.  Whitlock, C. (2021). The Afghanistan papers: A secret history of the war. Simon and Schuster.Select three resources you have used for your Research Paper that present differing interpretations of your chosen topic. How did you interpret your topic differently than other sources? Explain why you chose a particular theory and/or perspective over other theories/perspectives you researched. What issues did you experience while analyzing these historical interpretations? Complete your write-up in 500-750 words. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the Turabian Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance. 

Topic subject matter: The Impact of the Fall of Afghanistan on veteransTHE THREE RESOURCESGannon, B. A., & Oldham, J. L. (2024). A VETERANS ORAL HISTORY PROJECT. The Routledge Companion to Public Humanities Scholarship.Walldorf Jr, C. W. (2022). Narratives and War: Explaining the Length and End of US Military Operations in Afghanistan.

revise help Questions: 6a) For a clearer grasp and to properly justify whether your quantitative variables fall under discrete or continuous categories, please refer back to the explanation provided in in-class activity 1C, specifically in the section between questions 2 and 3. This review will enhance your understanding of the concepts. 6b) For a clearer grasp and to properly justify whether your quantitative variables fall under discrete or continuous categories, please refer back to the explanation provided in in-class activity 1C, specifically in the section between questions 2 and 3. This review will enhance your understanding of the concepts. 8H) Do the following here: 1. Describe the  shape – discussing the  · overall pattern (i.e., symmetric, uniform, left-skewed or right-skewed), and · modality – i.e., number of peaks and State the type of modality associated with the number of peaks you identified  2. Identify  outliers. Looking at the graphs, are there unusually low values and unusually high values. The boxplot will generally help you to identify the outliers, but when it is not clear,  · You can use IQR to find outliers as follows: 1. Multiply the IQR by 1.5 to get the upper and lower fence values. 2. Add the upper fence value to Q3 and subtract the lower fence value from Q1. 3. Any data point that is above the upper fence or below the lower fence is an outlier. 3. In your explanation make not if this is different than your prediction in part d.  10) Ok. Generally, I recommend the following:   Use two paragraphs in your summary – one paragraph for each dataset.; · Clearly explain any contradictions and/or alignment between the summary statistics and the graphs based on the; · Shape · Describe the  overall  pattern as symmetric, uniform, left-skewed, or right-skewed, using adjectives like slightly etc to qualify the overall pattern that best fits your distribution. · Identify the  Modality – as unimodal, bimodal, or multimodal with reference to the highest frequency · Center. Mean, median, and identify the typical value · Spread. based on the minimum value, maximum value, range, and standard deviation · Outliers– identifying unusually low and high values in your datasets.; · Feel free to highlight values that are exceptional or stand out when describing your distributions.  · Add any additional observations or questions that you have as you move through this project. 14c) Refer to inclass activity 6B Question 2 Part D for a better understanding of the interpretation of the slope.  14d) You need to identify the y-intercept here. And interpret it. Refer to inclass activity 6B Question 4 Part D for an example.  14e) Identify the correlation coefficient correctly and Provide an interpretation of the identified correlation Coefficient   Refer to the table that contains general guidelines for describing the strength of a linear relationship in inclass activity 5A to answer this question.  14f) The identified value is incorrect. however revise and update the value and its interpretation after swapping the variables. Provide an interpretation of the stated value of the coefficient of determination. Refer back to the objectives of in-class activity 6C and provide context relevant to your own situation 15) I don’t seem to agree with your response based on the current analysis. However, revise and update your response after swapping the variables. In your revision Consider some of the statistics you described in question 14 and provide a convincing justification for your claim. 

revise help Questions: 6a) For a clearer grasp and to properly justify whether your quantitative variables fall under discrete or continuous categories, please refer back to the explanation provided in in-class activity 1C, specifically in the section between questions 2 and 3. This review will enhance your understanding of the

Examine the difference between American Indian historians writing American Indian history and non-Indian historians writing American Indian history. Discuss the pros and cons of each side of the issue. Whose view of American Indian history can be considered the most valid? Why?

Examine the difference between American Indian historians writing American Indian history and non-Indian historians writing American Indian history. Discuss the pros and cons of each side of the issue. Whose view of American Indian history can be considered the most valid? Why?