IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 Please answer two of the following questions, one from Group A and one from Group B. Limit your answer to 600 words maximum PER QUESTION (no minimum limit, but I will deduct points if I don’t believe your answer is complete or is too shallow.) The thought is that you are writing a one page memo about 500 words is about one page small type (10 pt), single spaced The two sources you cite (and you must cite your sources) do not count toward your word limit; nor does the memo header. Spelling and grammar does count (up to 20% of the grade) —you are writing this memo to your boss. Let’s presume he was an English major (and has taken IS324). File Management Instructions: READ THESE BULLETS CAREFULLY • You must turn in this exam as TWO MS-Word readable files on D2L (pdf okay, rtf NOT). This exam is due 9 pm Thursday March 21, 2024 (You must submit by this time. I will NOT accept email submissions.) • Note that you are submitting each memo as a separate document in D2L • Make sure to use correct memo format (with To:, From:, Date:, and Subject: fields – these do not count against the word limit). Be sure to reference your work (you MUST provide references, failure to do so will result in my grading STARTING at 80% and going down from there). References do not count in the word limit. • Be sure that you follow the course standard memo structure (statement of issue, recommendation, background/justification, references), even if the memo request doesn’t specifically ask for these. Do NOT use url shortener (I want the full url for all citations) • You must indicate the question you are answering clearly in the subject line of your memo. [You’d be surprised; sometimes it is hard to tell which question people are answering if they don’t say.] It is possible for you to spend 4 hours on this exam. That is not my intention. If you spend more than 4 to 6 solid hours, you have spent too much time on this. Many of you won’t even spend that much time. Page two is context for your answers. It describes a fictional company where you have just been hired. Questions begin on page four. Answer two questions, one from Group A and one from Group B. Watch for restrictions based on the other question you answer. In every case, the answer is in the form of a memo to the character in the story. Make it so. Kanza Arif IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 Ottoman Empire is a growing brick and mortar retailer with just over 150 US stores specializing in upscale furniture and fixtures. OE sells directly to the end user as well as to interior designers; it also has a line of custom built furniture. Ottoman Empire currently does not have (or immediately plan for) a significant online sales presence, although it uses the web for customer support and marketing. OE’s corporate offices are in downtown Chicago, IL. It has seven regional offices and distribution centers in: Manlius, NY, Columbia, SC, Copperas Cove, TX, Lincoln, NE, Medford, OR, Santa Barbara, CA, and Chicago, IL. The company grossed $395 million in sales last year and netted a $35 million dollar profit. It is growing at a rate of about twelve percent a year and opening about 10 new stores each year. Borden Drousy, the CIO, works from the corporate office. Each regional IT staff is run by a Technical Director. So there are seven IT centers with the Chicago operation doing corporate support as well as regional operations. The IT centers are connected by rented T3 lines back to Chicago. Each of the 150 stores has a T1 line into its regional center. Chicago is running an open source ERP system called ERPNext. Right now ERPNext is housed primarily in Chicago (on-premise) and distributed out to the data centers and retail stores via the leased lines. In addition, OE manages its email using an MS-Exchange product hosted in Chicago, and has rolled out MS-Office w/MS-SharePoint as its officing solution. MS-Exchange and the OE website are hosted on three load-balanced in-house servers in the corporate data center. ERPNext runs on an 8 core application server with mirrored onsite backup. There are fifteen IT staff people in the corporate office (development, ERPNext maintenance, computer operations, and staff tech support) and an average of five in each regional office (the number due largely to travel demands among regional staff to visit retail stores for repair, maintenance, and upgrade of hardware, and software.) You have just finished your MS at DePaul University and have been hired onto the corporate staff as an IT Analyst reporting to the CIO. Your responsibilities are to analyze, evaluate, and execute plans for modernizing the IT infrastructure in a way that will support growth of the company toward doubling its current size over the next ten years. IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 What follows are a series of memos from the CIO (and others) to you. CIO Drousy and his friends like to receive back single page memos (about 500 words) that clearly and concisely lay out issues for them. They don’t like being told basics they already know; and they don’t like to read a lot of extra fluff. But they do want meaty information. Borden permits his staff to provide background sources and citations outside of the 500 words so he knows where to turn if he wants to dig deeper. Oh, and one of his mottos is: “I can read Wikipedia myself! Tell me something I don’t know.” The word count is measured by Word (which includes everything so I will give you UPTO 600 words, after which, I stop reading!). Word count trumps page count. When he issues a research memo, he expects a clean, clear, and complete response within the week. There is a pool of ten memos in his hopper right now. Pick two of them (one from Group A, one from Group B) and develop some answers for Borden and his friends. Kanza Arif IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 Question A1. From: Donatello Nobatti, Technical Director To: You Re: On the sly Lotta B. Essen, our MicroSoft sales rep has been pushing unified communications solutions and telling me that BYOD is the next big wave. I’m not convinced but don’t have enough information. What are the considerations (pro and con) for moving forward with a BYOD plan (what are the best practices in developing a policy or do we just do chaos)? What are other firms doing to get this beast under control? Can you give me a memo on this? Question A2. From: Ima Hacker, Chief Security Officer To: You Re: Lost in the clouds? I am up in arms that we might be considering changing our enterprise architecture by moving our systems from our site to a commercial cloud vendor. Now that I’ve brought it up, Borden wants background (he knows what cloud computing is). Can you draft me a memo that lays out the security trade-offs among our current site architecture and the principle cloud options we might consider? IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 Question A3. From: Candace B. Rittenoff, Chief Financial Officer To: You Re: Money for nothing? I am wondering why we are paying six figures to Microsoft each year when there are open source alternatives to Exchange Server and MS-Office. What are the trade-offs between open source and commercial officing software? Is open source actually free? If not, how do we cost it against commercial software? What factors other than price should we be considering? Memo, please. Question A4. From: Ed Amame, Chief Accountant To: You Re: Can you hear me now? Even though we are running T1 and T3 lines among all of our offices and stores, our corporate voice phone bill from AT&T is in low six figures a month. Is AT&T providing us with something we can’t do ourselves? Are there lower cost IP Telephony (VOIP) options for us to consider? Are there considerations we need to factor in other than price? Can you get me a one pager on this? (NOTE: I don’t want to change the WAN configuration, just the voice phone bill.) Question A5. From: Otto DeLupe, Chief Marketing Officer To: You Re: Face time or Facebook? I think we should be doing more with Social Media. We have a website and Facebook page, what else should we be doing to connect with our customers? What I really need to know is what you recommend for developing a social media strategy? Are there any downsides to getting more involved? Can you give me a page on this? IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 PART B Question B1. (you may not choose this if you did A2) From: Orson Buggy, PC Support Manager To: You Re: On to something, or just a lot of SaaS? I think we should be moving everything to the cloud. I have been pitching Borden Drousy lately on PaaS, IaaS, and SaaS. Given the cyclical nature of our business, should we be moving our ERP or MS-Officing systems to one of these? What criteria will determine which of these architectures, if any, is a better fit for us? I’d like a memo, but mind you I am not looking for a solution recommendation here—rather a sense of the recommended method and criteria for figuring this out. Question B2 (you may not choose this if you did A5) From: Bjorn A. Payne Diaz, Marketing Director To: You Re: It’s life, but not as we know it I want to launch a major social media campaign using Facebook, Twitter, and several other web properties. What IT infrastructure will we need to support it (consider increased web traffic, phone calls and anything else you can come up with)? What in-house technology implications (and related overhead costs) might this campaign have? How do we go about evaluating IT costs for this as part of establishing a business case for my campaign proposal? Can you get me a memo on this? IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 Question B3. (you may not choose this if you did A3) From: Noah Vale, Exchange Server Manager To: You Re: You’ve got mail! (and maybe a little virus too) Independent of Candace’s questions (see A3), I have been complaining to Borden about spam and viruses, and other DoS2 attacks into our systems. I am spending way too much of my time troubleshooting problems that don’t deal directly with advancing our business operations. I’ve got him thinking: perhaps we do need to move our email environments to a Web2.0 SaaS solution from our current Exchange Server solution. I want to make the case but need to know: what questions do we need to ask? How do we go about making the evaluation between hosting an Exchange server ourselves and offloading email to a hosted solution? Is there a third option we should consider along with this? Question B4. From: Nick F. Thyme To: You Re: It’s just like being there, only better I am developing a business case for using collaboration technologies to hold virtual meetings rather than have our corporate staff fly all over the country to regional offices. I believe virtual meetings can save us into six figures in travel costs each year. Help me prove I’m right and that it is this simple (virtual collaboration is this simple, isn’t it?). What kind of technology infrastructure (hardware and software) do we need in place to run effective virtual meetings? How will we know what to buy? How will we know how to implement this? Are there other, non-technology issues to consider? Will these meetings be just as good as sending our executives on a plane (Leading a virtual meeting is just like leading a face-to-face meeting, right)? What does Borden need to know in order to evaluate my proposal? 2 DoS = denial of service IS424/IS324 Final Exam r9.2 Question B5. (you may not choose this if you did A1) From: Borden Drousy To: You Re: The naked truth I had to work from home last week and found I was very productive (even though I could only get to the webmail application – what is this VPN thing I hear about?). I am thinking about permitting several of our IT staff people (keep this between us for the time being) to telecommute on a periodic basis. I am separately researching policy and HR implications of telecommuting. What I’d like you to find out for me (and report via memo) is: what are our IT infrastructure implications for VPN? (mind you I don’t want a complete redesign of our WAN just the parts to support telecommuting to HQ). Do we save infrastructure money if some of our staff periodically telecommute? Or, will this cost us money? What if we have them telecommute all the time? Do we require any new or different infrastructure than we currently have in place? Are there security issues? How do we cost out infrastructure implications for a telecommuting project? Can you get me a memo on this?

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

Please answer two of the following questions, one from Group A and one from Group B.

Limit your answer to 600 words maximum PER QUESTION (no minimum limit, but I will

deduct points if I don’t believe your answer is complete or is too shallow.) The thought is

that you are writing a one page memo about 500 words is about one page small type (10

pt), single spaced

The two sources you cite (and you must cite your sources) do not count toward your word

limit; nor does the memo header. Spelling and grammar does count (up to 20% of the

grade) —you are writing this memo to your boss. Let’s presume he was an English major

(and has taken IS324).

File Management Instructions: READ THESE BULLETS CAREFULLY

• You must turn in this exam as TWO MS-Word readable files on D2L (pdf okay, rtf
NOT). This exam is due 9 pm Thursday March 21, 2024 (You must submit by
this time. I will NOT accept email submissions.)

• Note that you are submitting each memo as a separate document in D2L

• Make sure to use correct memo format (with To:, From:, Date:, and Subject: fields –
these do not count against the word limit). Be sure to reference your work (you
MUST provide references, failure to do so will result in my grading STARTING at 80%
and going down from there). References do not count in the word limit.

• Be sure that you follow the course standard memo structure (statement of issue,
recommendation, background/justification, references), even if the memo request
doesn’t specifically ask for these. Do NOT use url shortener (I want the full url for all
citations)

• You must indicate the question you are answering clearly in the subject line of your
memo. [You’d be surprised; sometimes it is hard to tell which question people are
answering if they don’t say.]

It is possible for you to spend 4 hours on this exam. That is not my intention. If you spend

more than 4 to 6 solid hours, you have spent too much time on this. Many of you won’t

even spend that much time.

Page two is context for your answers. It describes a fictional company where you have just

been hired. Questions begin on page four. Answer two questions, one from Group A and

one from Group B. Watch for restrictions based on the other question you answer.

In every case, the answer is in the form of a memo to the character in the story. Make it so.

Kanza Arif

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

Ottoman Empire is a growing brick and mortar retailer with just over 150 US stores specializing

in upscale furniture and fixtures. OE sells directly to the end user as well as to interior

designers; it also has a line of custom built furniture. Ottoman Empire currently does not have

(or immediately plan for) a significant online sales presence, although it uses the web for

customer support and marketing.

OE’s corporate offices are in downtown Chicago, IL. It has seven regional offices and

distribution centers in: Manlius, NY, Columbia, SC, Copperas Cove, TX, Lincoln, NE, Medford,

OR, Santa Barbara, CA, and Chicago, IL. The company grossed $395 million in sales last year and

netted a $35 million dollar profit. It is growing at a rate of about twelve percent a year and

opening about 10 new stores each year.

Borden Drousy, the CIO, works from the corporate office. Each regional IT staff is run by a

Technical Director. So there are seven IT centers with the Chicago operation doing corporate

support as well as regional operations. The IT centers are connected by rented T3 lines back to

Chicago. Each of the 150 stores has a T1 line into its regional center. Chicago is running an

open source ERP system called ERPNext. Right now ERPNext is housed primarily in Chicago

(on-premise) and distributed out to the data centers and retail stores via the leased lines.

In addition, OE manages its email using an MS-Exchange product hosted in Chicago, and has

rolled out MS-Office w/MS-SharePoint as its officing solution. MS-Exchange and the OE

website are hosted on three load-balanced in-house servers in the corporate data center.

ERPNext runs on an 8 core application server with mirrored onsite backup. There are fifteen IT

staff people in the corporate office (development, ERPNext maintenance, computer operations,

and staff tech support) and an average of five in each regional office (the number due largely to

travel demands among regional staff to visit retail stores for repair, maintenance, and upgrade

of hardware, and software.)

You have just finished your MS at DePaul University and have been hired onto the corporate

staff as an IT Analyst reporting to the CIO. Your responsibilities are to analyze, evaluate, and

execute plans for modernizing the IT infrastructure in a way that will support growth of the

company toward doubling its current size over the next ten years.

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

What follows are a series of memos from the CIO (and others) to you. CIO Drousy and his

friends like to receive back single page memos (about 500 words) that clearly and concisely lay

out issues for them. They don’t like being told basics they already know; and they don’t like to

read a lot of extra fluff. But they do want meaty information. Borden permits his staff to

provide background sources and citations outside of the 500 words so he knows where to turn

if he wants to dig deeper. Oh, and one of his mottos is: “I can read Wikipedia myself! Tell me

something I don’t know.” The word count is measured by Word (which includes everything so I

will give you UPTO 600 words, after which, I stop reading!). Word count trumps page count.

When he issues a research memo, he expects a clean, clear, and complete response within the

week.

There is a pool of ten memos in his hopper right now. Pick two of them (one from Group A,

one from Group B) and develop some answers for Borden and his friends.

Kanza Arif

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

Question A1.

From: Donatello Nobatti, Technical Director

To: You

Re: On the sly

Lotta B. Essen, our MicroSoft sales rep has been pushing unified communications solutions and

telling me that BYOD is the next big wave. I’m not convinced but don’t have enough

information. What are the considerations (pro and con) for moving forward with a BYOD plan

(what are the best practices in developing a policy or do we just do chaos)? What are other

firms doing to get this beast under control? Can you give me a memo on this?

Question A2.

From: Ima Hacker, Chief Security Officer

To: You

Re: Lost in the clouds?

I am up in arms that we might be considering changing our enterprise architecture by moving

our systems from our site to a commercial cloud vendor. Now that I’ve brought it up, Borden

wants background (he knows what cloud computing is).

Can you draft me a memo that lays out the security trade-offs among our current site

architecture and the principle cloud options we might consider?

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

Question A3.

From: Candace B. Rittenoff, Chief Financial Officer

To: You

Re: Money for nothing?

I am wondering why we are paying six figures to Microsoft each year when there are open

source alternatives to Exchange Server and MS-Office.

What are the trade-offs between open source and commercial officing software? Is open

source actually free? If not, how do we cost it against commercial software? What factors

other than price should we be considering? Memo, please.

Question A4.

From: Ed Amame, Chief Accountant

To: You

Re: Can you hear me now?

Even though we are running T1 and T3 lines among all of our offices and stores, our corporate

voice phone bill from AT&T is in low six figures a month. Is AT&T providing us with something

we can’t do ourselves? Are there lower cost IP Telephony (VOIP) options for us to consider?

Are there considerations we need to factor in other than price? Can you get me a one pager

on this? (NOTE: I don’t want to change the WAN configuration, just the voice phone bill.)

Question A5.

From: Otto DeLupe, Chief Marketing Officer

To: You

Re: Face time or Facebook?

I think we should be doing more with Social Media. We have a website and Facebook page,

what else should we be doing to connect with our customers? What I really need to know is

what you recommend for developing a social media strategy? Are there any downsides to

getting more involved? Can you give me a page on this?

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

PART B

Question B1. (you may not choose this if you did A2)

From: Orson Buggy, PC Support Manager

To: You

Re: On to something, or just a lot of SaaS?

I think we should be moving everything to the cloud. I have been pitching Borden Drousy lately

on PaaS, IaaS, and SaaS. Given the cyclical nature of our business, should we be moving our

ERP or MS-Officing systems to one of these? What criteria will determine which of these

architectures, if any, is a better fit for us?

I’d like a memo, but mind you I am not looking for a solution recommendation here—rather a

sense of the recommended method and criteria for figuring this out.

Question B2 (you may not choose this if you did A5)

From: Bjorn A. Payne Diaz, Marketing Director

To: You

Re: It’s life, but not as we know it

I want to launch a major social media campaign using Facebook, Twitter, and several other web

properties.

What IT infrastructure will we need to support it (consider increased web traffic, phone calls

and anything else you can come up with)? What in-house technology implications (and related

overhead costs) might this campaign have? How do we go about evaluating IT costs for this as

part of establishing a business case for my campaign proposal? Can you get me a memo on

this?

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

Question B3. (you may not choose this if you did A3)

From: Noah Vale, Exchange Server Manager

To: You

Re: You’ve got mail! (and maybe a little virus too)

Independent of Candace’s questions (see A3), I have been complaining to Borden about spam

and viruses, and other DoS2 attacks into our systems. I am spending way too much of my time

troubleshooting problems that don’t deal directly with advancing our business operations. I’ve

got him thinking: perhaps we do need to move our email environments to a Web2.0 SaaS

solution from our current Exchange Server solution.

I want to make the case but need to know: what questions do we need to ask? How do we go

about making the evaluation between hosting an Exchange server ourselves and offloading

email to a hosted solution? Is there a third option we should consider along with this?

Question B4.

From: Nick F. Thyme

To: You

Re: It’s just like being there, only better

I am developing a business case for using collaboration technologies to hold virtual meetings

rather than have our corporate staff fly all over the country to regional offices. I believe virtual

meetings can save us into six figures in travel costs each year.

Help me prove I’m right and that it is this simple (virtual collaboration is this simple, isn’t it?).

What kind of technology infrastructure (hardware and software) do we need in place to run

effective virtual meetings? How will we know what to buy? How will we know how to

implement this? Are there other, non-technology issues to consider? Will these meetings be

just as good as sending our executives on a plane (Leading a virtual meeting is just like leading a

face-to-face meeting, right)?

What does Borden need to know in order to evaluate my proposal?

2
DoS = denial of service

IS424/IS324 Final Exam

r9.2

Question B5. (you may not choose this if you did A1)

From: Borden Drousy

To: You

Re: The naked truth

I had to work from home last week and found I was very productive (even though I could only

get to the webmail application – what is this VPN thing I hear about?). I am thinking about

permitting several of our IT staff people (keep this between us for the time being) to

telecommute on a periodic basis. I am separately researching policy and HR implications of

telecommuting. What I’d like you to find out for me (and report via memo) is: what are our IT

infrastructure implications for VPN? (mind you I don’t want a complete redesign of our WAN

just the parts to support telecommuting to HQ).

Do we save infrastructure money if some of our staff periodically telecommute? Or, will this

cost us money? What if we have them telecommute all the time? Do we require any new or

different infrastructure than we currently have in place? Are there security issues? How do we

cost out infrastructure implications for a telecommuting project?

Can you get me a memo on this?

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Include the following aspects in the discussion: Summarize the forces behind the shift toward healthcare as a business. Share if you feel this is good, bad, inevitable, or something that should be dismantled. Has the enormous increase in healthcare costs driven by a profits before people mentality affected you? Discuss alternatives to the for-profit business model.   A brief history of Medicare in America   Does Vertical Integration Improve or Imperil U.S. Health Care? 

Include the following aspects in the discussion: Summarize the forces behind the shift toward healthcare as a business. Share if you feel this is good, bad, inevitable, or something that should be dismantled. Has the enormous increase in healthcare costs driven by a profits before people mentality affected you? Discuss

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN THE WORKPLACE After the Affordable Care Act passed, the for-profit Holly Lobby corporation sued the government on the basis of the religious beliefs of its owners who did not believe in birth control.  Hobby Lobby won the lawsuit and was granted an exemption from that portion of the ACA which included employee-covered birth control.  In a related case, a Colorado baker won a lawsuit that was brought against him by a homosexual couple when the baker refused, on the basis of his religious beliefs, to bake a wedding cake for the couple.  In other cases in this general topic, doctors, government employees, and healthcare providers have brought or been the target of lawsuits when they refuse to or are forced to provide services that conflict with their religious beliefs.  When choosing this topic, note that it is easy to get distracted by your feelings on this issue.  Try to step back from any strong feelings you have and approach the topic by narrowing in on a specific right or duty or obligation and whether it is moral to grant or deny a right or duty or force a specific behavior.  Links to an external site. to an external site. -Links to an external site. control/burwellLinks to an external site. -Links to an external site. vLinks to an external site. -Links to an external site. hobbyLinks to an external site. lobby#:~:text=Hobby%20Lobby%20ruling%2C%20on%20June%2030%2C%202Links to an external site. 014%2C%20the,five%20or%20fewer%20people%20own%20more%20than%205 Links to an external site. 0%25Links to an external site. .Links to an external site.   to an external site.  Links to an external site. 10/D0DF6C2495654F4BPQ/8?accountid=32521Links to an external site.   to an external site.  Links to an external site.   The Week 3 written assignment should be an essay on Religious Beliefs in the workplace and include the following sections with headings in bold font:   Part 1: Introduction, Case Study, Ethical Question In this section, present an introduction to the general topic, explain the case study, identify the central moral controversy at stake, and articulate an ethical question that describes the central moral controversy at stake. This section must include one quote from one of the resources provided with the case study. To complete this section, · Choose a case study from the selection provided by your instructor in the Week 3 announcement titled “Week 3 Case Studies.” · Present a brief introduction to the case study. · Discuss background information. · Identify the central moral controversy at stake in the case study. · Articulate an ethical question based on the central moral controversy. This section should be around 300 words.   Part 2: Reading Philosophy Reflection In this section, choose one of the philosophical texts associated with your chosen ethical theory listed in the  Philosophical Texts  Download Philosophical Texts document. Copy and paste the text into this section of the paper. After applying the reading philosophy steps from the Week 1 discussion, · Explain the key ideas in the text. · Discuss how your understanding of the text evolved after multiple reads. This section should be around 150 words (excluding the philosophical text).   Part 3: Explanation of Utilitarianism or Deontology In this section, describe the ethical theory of utilitarianism or deontology and explain its core principles. This section must include one quote from the provided resources on the ethical theory. To complete this section, · Discuss the historical background of the ethical theory and the philosopher(s) associated with it. · Explain the core moral principle of the theory, or if there is more than one, the principle that you will focus on in applying that theory to your question. · Demonstrate how the theory and its core moral principle(s) apply to an ethical question that is different than the topic of your case study. For example, what would deontologists say about the morality of lying, and what principle would support their statement; what would utilitarians say about the morality of using animals in medical research, and what principle would support their statement? This section should be around 350 words.   Part 4: Application of Ethical Theory In this section, apply the core principle(s) you articulated above to the central moral controversy in the case study. · Explain how the core principle(s) of the ethical theory apply to the case study. This might include considering which facts or features of the case study lend themselves to analysis by the ethical theory. · Apply the core principles of the theory to the central moral controversy in the case study by showing how someone using the theory would answer the ethical question addressed by your case study. This section should be around 350 words.  

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IN THE WORKPLACE After the Affordable Care Act passed, the for-profit Holly Lobby corporation sued the government on the basis of the religious beliefs of its owners who did not believe in birth control.  Hobby Lobby won the lawsuit and was granted an exemption from that portion of the

see attached  BUSI 675 Discussion Assignment Instructions The student must then post 2 replies of at least 300 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week. For each thread, students must support their assertions with at least 1 scholarly citations in APA format and incorporate Scriptural or Biblical principles and experience. Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include the course textbook, the Bible, or peer-reviewed journal published within the past five years. Include clear topic sentences for each paragraph, supporting sentences, and a conclusion sentence/paragraph.

see attached  BUSI 675 Discussion Assignment Instructions The student must then post 2 replies of at least 300 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Week. For each thread, students must support their assertions with at least 1 scholarly citations in APA format and incorporate Scriptural

see attached  BUSI 675 Case Study Assignment Instructions Overview The student will complete 4 Case Study assignments, answering questions from the assigned case at the end of the respective textbook chapter. Instructions Each case study must be a minimum of 4-7 pages of original discussion and analysis, not counting the title page, reference page, figures, tables, and appendixes. The statements in each Case Study must be supported by biblical integration and at least 2 scholarly references, cited throughout the narrative and placed on the reference list in the APA format. Case Study assigned questions are listed in the chart below. Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool. The tool is a starting point for instructors to check overall Academic Integrity and higher scores generally indicate a higher probability of Academic Misconduct. The higher a score the higher the probability that there are too high a percentage of quotations included in the narrative, and/or there are passages that have not been properly cited. Case Study: Decision-Making Assignment Case 5.2 Eurowatch Company (from your Albright & Winston textbook) See on page 239-240 of textbook

see attached  BUSI 675 Case Study Assignment Instructions Overview The student will complete 4 Case Study assignments, answering questions from the assigned case at the end of the respective textbook chapter. Instructions Each case study must be a minimum of 4-7 pages of original discussion and analysis, not counting the

  Assignment Overview This essay exam requires you to reflect critically on the texts we have read in the first three modules of this course. You will choose  TWO  texts that we have read and develop three paragraphs that help you to  differentiate the works based on a thematic issue. Be sure to follow the instructions below for what to address in each paragraph. For example, you will NOT include an introductory paragraph in your exercise; dive right into your analysis.   Directions Paragraphs One and Two Dedicate one full paragraph to each text you choose. What aspect of each work’s handling of this topic, motif, or theme is the most important to analyze? Why? What does it reveal about the characters or their relationships with one another and, based on your close reading, what broader idea is each short story expressing about the topic, motif or theme? That is, what social or philosophical commentary does the work offer via its handling of this topic, motif, or theme? In each paragraph, be sure: · to include a topic sentence that frames your discussion as an analysis of the handling of the topic, theme, or motif in each work; · to convey at least one well-situated textual or concrete narrative detail from the work under consideration that you believe sheds light on your topic, theme, or motif; · to analyze or close read that evidence by explaining what it reveals about the story’s characters or their relationships in relation to your topic, theme, or motif; · to close each paragraph by stepping back from your close reading to make an inference on its bases as to what idea the work expresses through its handling of this theme, topic, or motif. Other things to consider: · Counterintuitive findings, ones that reveal something about the evidence and short story that go beyond simply paraphrasing, will be the most highly valued. Try to use your close attention to the evidence to make your discussion of the question as nuanced as possible in each paragraph. · You may focus your discussion on an important narrative detail (or small set of such details), but if you quote from a story at length, be sure to pay particular attention to the language of the passage that you cite, especially its use of figurative language or analogies, its tone, its style, and/or the writer’s specific word choices within it. Do not discuss these elements for their own sake; show how they help you to answer the overarching questions. In other words, explain how the short story’s language (or at least the translation’s language) helps you to begin to answer these questions. · You may refer back to your first paragraph in your second paragraph. However, save any comparative analysis for your third paragraph. See below.  Paragraph Three  In this paragraph, further differentiate the ideas each work expresses about the shared topic, theme, or motif by expanding on your preceding discussions with a brief contrastive analysis. That is, put those preceding analyses into conversation with one another. What’s further revealed about the difference in each work’s social or philosophical commentary by juxtaposing the works? Don’t just assert, explain. Develop a nuanced claim that differentiates the ideational content of the two works in terms of the point of contrast (i.e. the shared topic, motif, or theme). GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS · Format: 12 pt. Times New Roman, double-spaced · Heading: Use the MLA four-line header and create a title for your essay · Length: Each paragraph should be approximately 200 words (but no more than 350 words) · Citations: Use MLA in-text citations for textual evidence

  Assignment Overview This essay exam requires you to reflect critically on the texts we have read in the first three modules of this course. You will choose  TWO  texts that we have read and develop three paragraphs that help you to  differentiate the works based on a thematic issue. Be sure to

Current Issues For this assignment, you are to find a news article that discusses or depicts a current issue involving older adults, provide a summary of the article, how it relates to the class topic, and your thoughts/opinion/questions after reading the article. You are welcome to find articles in local/national news, pop culture news, etc. I just ask that the article is no more than 5 years old. Submit your assignment as a Word document. You will receive full credit for the assignment if you include the following: • The link to the article (2 point) • The year the article was published (2 point) • The article is no more than 5 years old (2 point) • The submission clearly indicates separated sections for the article summary, relation to the readingsand videos, and your thoughts and opinions, [see Current Issues template for example (2 points) • Each section (summary; relating article to readings and videos; your thoughts/opinions/questions) contains no more than 5 sentences that are written clearly and contain little to no grammatical errors (5 points) • Identify how this article relates to the class readings/videos from the week (5 points) • Your thoughts, opinions, or questions after reading the article (4 points) Videos and Readings: 1. 2. page 128-129 3. Health Literacy, Health Disparities, and Sources of Health Information in U.S. Older Adults. Cutilli et al., 2018.pdf FORMAT: Current Issues #[Insert Current Issues #]: [Insert Topic of the week] Article Link: [Insert article link] Year of article publication: [year] Summary: [No more than 5 sentences summarizing the article with little to no grammatical errors] Relating article to readings/videos: [No more than 5 sentences relating this article to the topic of the week*]. *Do not just say that the article relates to the weekly topic (e.g., “the article on exercise in old age relates to this weeks topic because it is about physical heath,disease, and longevity”). Rather, talk about how the concepts you read about in the article relate to what you learned about in your assigned readings/videos from that week. My thoughts/opinions/questions: [insert your thoughts/opinions/questions].

Current Issues For this assignment, you are to find a news article that discusses or depicts a current issue involving older adults, provide a summary of the article, how it relates to the class topic, and your thoughts/opinion/questions after reading the article. You are welcome to find articles in local/national

Check file POS2041: U.S. Government Valencia College Dr. Paul Labedz FINAL EXAM Directions: Please provide DETAILED type written responses to five questions: three questions from section 1 and two questions from section 2. Each response will be evaluated on a scale of 0-20 (Total points available: 100) Answers will be submitted via the Canvas assignment submission function. Please do not send an attachment with a .wps suffix. I cannot open these files. The due date can be found within the course syllabus and in a course announcement. DO NOT PLAGARIZE. YOU WILL FAIL THE COURSE IF YOU PLAGARIZE ON THIS EXAM. USE OF TOOLS RELATED TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) IS CONSIDERED PLAGIARISM. Section 1: Answer THREE of the following questions: 1) Where do people get their opinions about politics, and what are the forces that shape those opinions? 2) How do interest groups influence public policy? 3) How have the role and place of political parties in American politics changed during the past two centuries? 4) What role have minor parties, often called third parties, played in American history? 5) How does the campaign for the presidency differ from campaigns for other offices that are less visible, powerful, and prestigious? Section 2: Answer TWO of the following questions: 6) Many Americans praise the president when the economy is healthy and blame him when the economy is unhealthy. Does the president have effective control over the economy? Are Americans mistaken when they praise or blame the president? Are presidents at least partly responsible for this? 7) What are the respective roles of the president and Congress in producing the federal budget each year? 8) Is American sovereignty threatened by the economic and political changes in the world political environment? Suggest specific ways by which this sovereignty may be compromised. 9) Is it fair to say that the United States has been an expansionist power throughout its history?

Check file POS2041: U.S. Government Valencia College Dr. Paul Labedz FINAL EXAM Directions: Please provide DETAILED type written responses to five questions: three questions from section 1 and two questions from section 2. Each response will be evaluated on a scale of 0-20 (Total points available: 100) Answers will be

Week 6 Case Study Template Read the case study listed below. You must use at least one scholarly reference to provide pathophysiology statements. For this class, use of the textbook for pathophysiology statements is acceptable. You may also use an appropriate evidence-based journal. You must use the current Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes -Abridged for Primary Care Providers provided by the American Diabetes Association to determine the patient’s type of diabetes and answer the treatment recommendation questions. The most current guideline can be found at the following web address: to an external site. At the website, locate the current year’s CPG for use. Proper APA format (in-text citations, reference page, spelling, English language, and grammar) must be used. Case Study Scenario Chief Complaint J.T. is a 48-year old male who presents to the primary care clinic with fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst and increased appetite. History of Present Illness J.T. has been in his usual state of health until three weeks ago when he began experiencing symptoms of fatigue, weight loss, and extreme thirst. He reports that he would like to begin a walking program, but he feels too fatigued to walk at any point during the day. Now he is very concerned about gaining more weight since he is eating more. He reports insomnia due to having to get up and urinate greater than 4 times per night. Past Medical History  Hypertension Hyperlipidemia Obesity Family History Both parents deceased Brother: Type 2 diabetes  Social History Denies smoking Denies alcohol or recreational drug use Landscaper   Allergies No Known Drug Allergies  Medications Lisinopril 20 mg once daily by mouth Atorvastatin 20 mg once daily by mouth Aspirin 81 mg once daily by mouth Multivitamin once daily by mouth Review of Systems Constitutional: – fever, – chills, – weight loss. Neurological: denies dizziness or disorientation HEENT: Denies nasal congestion, rhinorrhea or sore throat.   Chest: (-)Tachypnea. Denies cough. Heart: Denies chest pain, chest pressure or palpitations. Lymph: Denies lymph node swelling. General Physical Exam   Constitutional: Alert and oriented male in no acute distress    Vital Signs: BP-136/80, T-98.6 F, P-78, RR-20 Wt. 240 lbs., Ht. 5’8″, BMI 36.5 HEENT  Eyes: Pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation, normal conjunctiva.  Ears: Tympanic membranes intact.  Nose: Bilateral nasal turbinates without redness or swelling. Nares patent.  Mouth: Oropharynx clear. No mouth lesions. Teeth present and intact; Oral mucous membranes and lips dry.  Neck/Lymph Nodes  Neck supple without JVD.  No lymphadenopathy, masses or carotid bruits.  Lungs  Bilateral breath sounds clear throughout lung fields. Breathing quality deep with fruity breath odor Heart  S1 and S2 regular rate and rhythm; – tachycardia; no rubs or murmurs.  Integumentary System  Skin warm, dry; Nail beds pink without clubbing.   Labs Test Patient’s Result Reference Glucose (fasting) 132 Normal reference range 60-120 mg/dL BUN 20 Normal reference range 7-24 mg/dL Creatinine 0.8 Normal reference range 0.7-1.4 mg/dL Sodium 141 Normal reference range 135-145 mEq/L Chloride 97 Normal reference range 95-105 mEq/L HCO3 24 Normal reference range 22-28 mEq/L A1C 7.2 Urinalysis Protein – Negative Glucose Positive Ketones Negative Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 220 mg/dL J.T. is diagnosed with diabetes. Review all information provided in the case to answer the following questions. *Utilize the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support your treatment recommendations. Utilizes the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support the chosen treatment recommendations @ Pathophysiology & Clinical Findings of the Disease 1. Based on the review of the history, physical and lab findings what is the most likely diabetes diagnosis for this patient? 2. Explain the pathophysiology associated with the chosen diabetes diagnosis. 3. Identify at least three subjective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis. 4. Identify at least three objective findings from the case which support the chosen diagnosis Management of the Disease *Utilize the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support your treatment recommendations. 1. Utilizes the required Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) to support the chosen treatment recommendations. 2. Identify two (2) “Evidence A” recommended medication classes for the treatment of this condition and provide an example (drug name) for each. 3. Describe the mechanism of action for each of the medication classes identified above. 4. Identify two (2) “ Evidence A” recommended non-pharmacological treatment options for this patient. References [Must be on a separate page and in APA format]

Week 6 Case Study Template Read the case study listed below. You must use at least one scholarly reference to provide pathophysiology statements. For this class, use of the textbook for pathophysiology statements is acceptable. You may also use an appropriate evidence-based journal. You must use the current Clinical Practice

This milestone is all about drafting a much as you can of your Chapter 2: Literature Review. Remember, as discussed in class, you should begin by drafting the body sections of your literature review. Every body section will have its own Level 2 heading. It is up to you if you want to break that section into smaller pieces with Level 3 headings. Then, as you write each of the body sections, each section should have its own mini introduction, supporting details from your sources (paraphrase, cite, state the so-what), and then a mini conclusion. After you finish your body sections, you may then draft the one paragraph “Introduction and Purpose” section to the chapter. Finally, you can then draft your “Conclusion” section, where you tie all of the information together, recap major points, and indicate where more research should be conducted.

This milestone is all about drafting a much as you can of your Chapter 2: Literature Review. Remember, as discussed in class, you should begin by drafting the body sections of your literature review. Every body section will have its own Level 2 heading. It is up to you if

See attachment  1. What was the Roosevelt Corollary, & how did it affect U.S. relations with Latin American nations? To what extent did the Roosevelt Corollary contribute to the perception of the U.S. as an imperialistic/aggressive nation? (from Chapter 19)   2. What were the results of the Paris Peace Conference & the Treaty of Versailles? Did the Treaty of Versailles lead to a lasting peace in Europe? Why or why not? (from Chapter 19)       3. What groups rose in opposition to the cultural changes of the 1920s, & how did they go about opposing those changes? What were the major flash points between fundamentalism & pluralism in the 1920s? (from Chapter 20)   4. What means or policies did the 1st New Deal undertake to provide relief to the American people & to promote economic recovery? (from Chapter 21)   5. What were the accomplishments & failures of the New Deal? Did the New Deal end the Great Depression in the U.S.? How did the New Deal recast the meaning of American freedom? (from Chapter 21)

See attachment  1. What was the Roosevelt Corollary, & how did it affect U.S. relations with Latin American nations? To what extent did the Roosevelt Corollary contribute to the perception of the U.S. as an imperialistic/aggressive nation? (from Chapter 19)   2. What were the results of the Paris Peace

Read all attachments…Instructions are attached Discussion Instructions Follow the instructions for the weekly paper assignment: · 12- point font, double spaced, one inch margins · 350-500 words · MUST be in APA format · Must use 3 references provided and one outside source Paper must address the following: a. Detail how the public’s opinion (1) and responses (2)  mental illness have changed throughout history. b. What were the public perceptions of crime and criminal behavior regarding these individuals?  c. Detail the benefits of the (1) asylum system and (2) the issues created by deinstitutionalization, generally speaking, and regarding the criminal justice system. d. Do you believe deinstitutionalization was appropriate, especially as it relates to “criminal populations”?  Why or why not? NO PLAGIARISM!!!!

Read all attachments…Instructions are attached Discussion Instructions Follow the instructions for the weekly paper assignment: · 12- point font, double spaced, one inch margins · 350-500 words · MUST be in APA format · Must use 3 references provided and one outside source Paper must address the following: a. Detail

The Death of Mila the Camel Driver Introduction: Before we explore the conditions surrounding Mila’s death, let’s review some basic facts. We define diffusion as movement of materials from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. This movement is due to kinetic energy of particles. An example of this can be observed by opening a bottle of perfume. Soon you will smell the perfume in distant parts of the room. It diffuses from the high concentration of molecules in the bottle to a lower concentration of molecules in the air. Osmosis is a type of diffusion . It involves movement of water through a differentially permeable membrane from a region of high concentration (of water molecules) to a region of lower concentration (of water molecules). We define 3 types of solutions based upon osmotic activity. In an isotonic solution, the solute concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane so there is no net movement of water. (See Figure 1) ( C ell placed in isotonic solution stays the same “Normal Cell” No change ) ( Figure 1 : Effects of an Isotonic S olution ) In a hypotonic solution, solute concentration is higher inside the cell than outside. So water moves from a high concentration outside the cell to a lower concentration inside the cell. The cell swells and may burst from the excess water. This is what occurs when we soak salad ingredients in ice water to make them crisp! (See Figure 2) ( Cell placed in hypotonic solution swells and perhaps bursts ! ) ( “Normal Cell” ) ( Cell S wells ) Figure 2: Effects of a Hypotonic Solution. In a hypertonic solution, the solute concentration is higher outside than inside the cell so water moves outward from the high concentration (of water) inside the cell to the lower concentration (of water) outside the cell. Thus the cell shrinks! (See Figure 3) ( “Normal Cell” C ell placed in hypertonic solution shrinks Cell S hrinks ) Figure 3. Effects of A Hypertonic Solution. Case Study: Mila the camel driver lost her way in the desert. After several days of wandering with her trusty camel Richard, she found himself on a beach. She carefully searched the area for a spring but found no fresh water. Finally, Mila became so thirsty that she decided to drink seawater. A few days later, a ship spotted Mila’s signal fire and landed on the beach. The ship’s captain found a delirious Mila who died the next day. Let’s investigate the cause of Mila’s death. We know that all living things are composed of cells. Since our camel driver is living, we can use stalks of celery, also composed of cells, to represent his body. We will use water and salt to investigate the effects of various concentrations of salt water on the cells. This should give us some clues to the cause of Mila’s demise. Movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of high concentration of water to an area of lower (water) concentration is termed osmosis. We will investigate the effects of three concentrations of salt solution on the celery stalks (Mila). One solution is hypertonic, that is, it contains more solutes and less water than the cytoplasm of the cells. One solution will be hypotonic. This solution will contain fewer solutes than the cell cytoplasm. The third solution will be isotonic and will contain a solute concentration identical to the cell cytoplasm. By observing the effects of these solutions on the celery stalks, we should be able to determine what happened to Mila’s cells when she drank seawater. Materials: 1 celery stalk and table salt A knife Measuring spoons and measuring cup Water (tap water will work unless your water has a high concentration of dissolved solutes) Distilled water works best. 3 containers for holding the solutions and celery stalks Some type of covering to close the containers Procedure: 1. Cut 4 two inch long slices of celery (try to keep them the same length and thickness.) 2. Make 4 vertical cuts 2/3 of the length of each piece. Try to space them evenly. ( Figure 4: Make 4 vertical cuts in each piece of celery. ) ( Celery ) 3. Label 3 containers A, B and C 4. Add 1 cup of water to each container 5. Add the following amounts of salt to each container: a. A – no salt b. B – ½ teaspoon salt c. C – 2 teaspoons salt 6. Stir to dissolve the salt. 7. Immerse one celery stalk in each container and reserve one celery stalk as a control. 8. Cover the containers and wrap the “control stalk” in plastic wrap or place in an air tight container. 9. Leave the celery stalks in the container 6 hours or overnight. 10. Remove the stalks from the containers and bend each stalk 11. Record your description of each stalk in the table in the Observation section. Observations: Solution Flexibility As Compared To the Control Stalk Did the Water Move Into the cells or out of the cells? A B C Conclusions: 1. Based upon your observations of the flexibility of each stalk, which solution would you describe as isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic? Solution Tonicity A B C 2. Which solution was the closest approximation of seawater? 3. What happened to Mila’s cells as a result of drinking seawater? 4. What symptoms do you think that Mila presented before her death? 5. How would you treat someone in the condition in which the captain found Mila? 6. Give three possible sources of error in your experiment. 6

The Death of Mila the Camel Driver Introduction: Before we explore the conditions surrounding Mila’s death, let’s review some basic facts. We define diffusion as movement of materials from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. This movement is due to kinetic energy of particles. An

Topic subject matter: The Impact of the Fall of Afghanistan on veteransTHE THREE RESOURCESGannon, B. A., & Oldham, J. L. (2024). A VETERANS ORAL HISTORY PROJECT. The Routledge Companion to Public Humanities Scholarship.Walldorf Jr, C. W. (2022). Narratives and War: Explaining the Length and End of US Military Operations in Afghanistan. International Security, 47(1), 93-138.  Whitlock, C. (2021). The Afghanistan papers: A secret history of the war. Simon and Schuster.Select three resources you have used for your Research Paper that present differing interpretations of your chosen topic. How did you interpret your topic differently than other sources? Explain why you chose a particular theory and/or perspective over other theories/perspectives you researched. What issues did you experience while analyzing these historical interpretations? Complete your write-up in 500-750 words. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the Turabian Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance. 

Topic subject matter: The Impact of the Fall of Afghanistan on veteransTHE THREE RESOURCESGannon, B. A., & Oldham, J. L. (2024). A VETERANS ORAL HISTORY PROJECT. The Routledge Companion to Public Humanities Scholarship.Walldorf Jr, C. W. (2022). Narratives and War: Explaining the Length and End of US Military Operations in Afghanistan.

revise help Questions: 6a) For a clearer grasp and to properly justify whether your quantitative variables fall under discrete or continuous categories, please refer back to the explanation provided in in-class activity 1C, specifically in the section between questions 2 and 3. This review will enhance your understanding of the concepts. 6b) For a clearer grasp and to properly justify whether your quantitative variables fall under discrete or continuous categories, please refer back to the explanation provided in in-class activity 1C, specifically in the section between questions 2 and 3. This review will enhance your understanding of the concepts. 8H) Do the following here: 1. Describe the  shape – discussing the  · overall pattern (i.e., symmetric, uniform, left-skewed or right-skewed), and · modality – i.e., number of peaks and State the type of modality associated with the number of peaks you identified  2. Identify  outliers. Looking at the graphs, are there unusually low values and unusually high values. The boxplot will generally help you to identify the outliers, but when it is not clear,  · You can use IQR to find outliers as follows: 1. Multiply the IQR by 1.5 to get the upper and lower fence values. 2. Add the upper fence value to Q3 and subtract the lower fence value from Q1. 3. Any data point that is above the upper fence or below the lower fence is an outlier. 3. In your explanation make not if this is different than your prediction in part d.  10) Ok. Generally, I recommend the following:   Use two paragraphs in your summary – one paragraph for each dataset.; · Clearly explain any contradictions and/or alignment between the summary statistics and the graphs based on the; · Shape · Describe the  overall  pattern as symmetric, uniform, left-skewed, or right-skewed, using adjectives like slightly etc to qualify the overall pattern that best fits your distribution. · Identify the  Modality – as unimodal, bimodal, or multimodal with reference to the highest frequency · Center. Mean, median, and identify the typical value · Spread. based on the minimum value, maximum value, range, and standard deviation · Outliers– identifying unusually low and high values in your datasets.; · Feel free to highlight values that are exceptional or stand out when describing your distributions.  · Add any additional observations or questions that you have as you move through this project. 14c) Refer to inclass activity 6B Question 2 Part D for a better understanding of the interpretation of the slope.  14d) You need to identify the y-intercept here. And interpret it. Refer to inclass activity 6B Question 4 Part D for an example.  14e) Identify the correlation coefficient correctly and Provide an interpretation of the identified correlation Coefficient   Refer to the table that contains general guidelines for describing the strength of a linear relationship in inclass activity 5A to answer this question.  14f) The identified value is incorrect. however revise and update the value and its interpretation after swapping the variables. Provide an interpretation of the stated value of the coefficient of determination. Refer back to the objectives of in-class activity 6C and provide context relevant to your own situation 15) I don’t seem to agree with your response based on the current analysis. However, revise and update your response after swapping the variables. In your revision Consider some of the statistics you described in question 14 and provide a convincing justification for your claim. 

revise help Questions: 6a) For a clearer grasp and to properly justify whether your quantitative variables fall under discrete or continuous categories, please refer back to the explanation provided in in-class activity 1C, specifically in the section between questions 2 and 3. This review will enhance your understanding of the

Examine the difference between American Indian historians writing American Indian history and non-Indian historians writing American Indian history. Discuss the pros and cons of each side of the issue. Whose view of American Indian history can be considered the most valid? Why?

Examine the difference between American Indian historians writing American Indian history and non-Indian historians writing American Indian history. Discuss the pros and cons of each side of the issue. Whose view of American Indian history can be considered the most valid? Why?